How to Get 104% in 4 Steps
Initially the B-320 reactor project was designed for heat capacity of 3,250 MW. However, Elektrosila PO supplied already developed structure of electric generator with electrical capacity of 1,000 MW. That is why based on power efficiency of the entire turbo-generator unit the heat capacity of VVER-1000 reactor is 3,000 MW.
Increase in heat capacity is implemented due to intensification of fuel fission. In this case, the temperature in the reactor has increased by 1.5oC — from 320 to 321.5 in average in the active zone.
- In case of capacity increase the pressure inside the reactor remains the same and is equal to 160 atm. However, the vessel is capable to support by far higher loads: pressure of hydro-testing of about 250 atm.
- By increasing the temperature of water at the output of the reactor it is possible to submit more heat to the steam generator. In this case the parameters inside the steam generator (pressure and temperature) remain the same. The volume of generated steam increases.
- 1 400 t/h — steam generator productivity
- In order to ensure that more volume of steam is produced, the turbine wheel space and last buckets were also modernized. Also, deeper dehydration of resulting steam from steam generators is provided for.
- The increased capacity of generator, while the terminal voltage remains the same, is a consequence of heavy currents. In order to cool down the ironed generator due to heat released under higher current load, the density of the cooling gas (hydrogen) was increased.
- 24 000 V — terminal voltage of electricity generator
URANIUM FISSION PROCESS
Uranium nucleons are split
inside the reactor every
MODERNIZATION AND SERVICE LIFE EXTENSION OF POWER UNITS
One of the main areas of the Concern’s activity is modernization of operating NPP power units which permits maintaining power capacity of NPPs as well as increasing their safety level and improve operating characteristics of power units.
In 2014 modernization of NPPs was performed in a planned scope in the following main areas:
- Support of NPP power unit safety in accordance with the requirements of standards and rules in the area of nuclear power use;
- Compliance with the terms and conditions of licenses for power unit operation;
- Performance of “post-Fukushima” activities;
- Implementation of industry-specific programs aimed at improving NPP safety, among other things, by way of modernization of main equipment, etc.;
- Recovery of resource characteristics of the graphite stack of RBMK power units;
- Substitution of NPP equipment with an exhausted lifespan;
- Improving safety and reliability of operation of systems and equipment involved in handling spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste;
- Implementation of systems for diagnostics and monitoring of operating condition of heating, mechanical and electrical equipment;
- Modernization aimed at increasing installed capacity and electric power generation;
- Implementation of modern energy efficient processes and equipment;
- Optimization of processes in order to improve energy efficiency of NPP operation;
- Implementation of energy efficiency automated management systems;
- Renovation and modernization of worn out and obsolete equipment of auxiliary facilities that ensure proper operation of NPPs.
SERVICE LIFE EXTENSION FOR EXISTING NPP POWER UNITS
Service life extension for existing NPPs power units once they exhaust the determined service life is one of the vital tasks at the current development stage of Russian nuclear industry and an efficient financial investment which permit to maintain generating capacities and increasing NPP safety.
Economically feasible duration of an extended operation timelines for NPP power units is 15-30 years and depends on both technical and economic factors on a case by case basis.
We have been working on service life extension for operating power units of Russian NPPs since 1998.
By the end of 2014, the operations on extending operation timelines of 21 NPP power units with an aggregate installed capacity of 13,242 MW were completed. The licenses permitting operation of these power units outside the determined service life were issued by Rostekhnadzor. NPP power units with an extended resource generated 435 bln KWh of power and the aggregate capacity amounts to 52.5% of the installed capacity of operating NPPs of the Russian Federation.
Currently investment projects on SLE are implemented at 8 power units: power units Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of Balakovo NPP, power unit No. 2 of Kalinin NPP, power unit No. 4 of Kursk NPP; power units Nos. 2 and 3 of Smolensk NPP.
RESULTS OF WORK ON SERVICE LIFE EXTENSION FOR NPP POWER UNITS IN 2014:
- Completion of work and approval of resolution on continuing operation of power unit No. 4 of Kola NPP for an additional term of 25 years; operation license for the extended time was obtained;
- Completion of work and formalization of the resolution by Rosatom State Corporation about continuing operation of power unit No. 1 of Kalinin NPP for an additional term of 30 years; Rostekhnadzor license was obtained;
- Rosatom State Corporation approved the investment project on service life extension for power unit No. 4 of Balakovo NPP;
- Design documentation “Measures on Modernization of Smolensk NPP in order to extend service life of power unit No. 3” was prepared.
Maintaining NPP Generating Power Capacities after Extension of the Operating Term, MW
Main Results of the Repair Campaign in 2014
repairs of 33 NPP
power units were
completed in 2014
bln rubles –
days – general optimization
of repair terms
According to the approved annual repair schedule of nuclear station power units, the following operations were planned for 2014:
- Repairs of 33 power units.
- 2,051 repair days.
The 2014 repair campaign is fulfilled in full scope and with due quality in terms of power generation and reduction of expenses for repairs.
- Optimization of repair duration of 26 power units amounted to 181.5 days.
- Increase in repair duration of 5 power units – 23 days.
40 repairs of 33 NPP power units with a total actual duration of 1,892.5 days were completed in 2014.
- General optimization of repair terms – 158.5 days.
- Financial effect: 1.6 bln rubles.
- Additional generation: 1,745 mln KWh.
MAIN RESULTS OF THE REPAIR CAMPAIGN IN 2014
General optimization of repair times became possible due to the following:
- Targeted search and removal of downtimes during scheduled repairs as a part of Rosatom production system development;
- Conservative approach to preparation of power unit repair schedules, allowing for time margin to remove possible defects;
- Absence of defects that may affect the duration of the critical path of repairs;
- Justification of canceling minor repairs of the power units switched to 18-month fuel cycle;
- 12 unscheduled stops of power units due to equipment failure with a total duration of 53 days occurred in 2014.
The target indicator of cost saving due to reduction of energy consumption in the similar conditions versus 2009 set forth for 2014 by the Order of Rosatom State Corporation is complied with mainly thanks to increasing energy production. The target indicator amounted to 23.11%. In 2014, thermal and electric energy savings totaled 29.9% (4,753.6 GJ) and 17.0% (487,257.2 GJ), accordingly.
Consolidated program for energy saving is implemented in the scope scheduled for 2014. NPPs currently undergo implementation of energy resource accounting systems and modernization of lighting systems using LED lights. Also, we pursue reduction of heat loss in heat supply systems and replace obsolete thermal insulation. Some work is currently at the design stage.
We continued working on replacement of turbine condensers at Balakovo, Kalinin, and Novovoronezh NPPs, modernization of separator superheaters at Kursk NPP aimed first of all at increasing safety and reliability of work of main equipment at the same time improving energy efficiency of power unit operation. The contract on manufacturing components and modernization of turbine wheel space of power unit No. 5 of Novovoronezh NPP was concluded. The volume of financing totaled 3.7 bln rubles in 2014.
Inspection audit confirmed the compliance of the Concern’s energy management system with the requirements of the international standard ISO 50001:2011. Automated Energy Performance Management System was put into operation.
The system permits collecting, generalizing, and analyzing information about changes in energy resource consumption and provides access to information on all levels of management in the Concern and Rosatom State Corporation.
|in kind||thou rubles||in kind||thou rubles||in kind||thou rubles|
(used as a fuel)
|Fuel assemblies, pcs||4 425||*||3 557||*||4 683||*|
|Automotive gasoline||t (GJ)||287
|Diesel fuel||t (GJ)||2 432
|84 415||4 436
|162 793||2 848
|Residual oil||t (GJ)||11 460
|137 490||16 790
|186 955||13 096
|Gas (natural)||m3 (GJ)||No purchase||24 125
|Oil, carbon, shale oil, and peat||–||No purchase|
* The information constitutes commercial secret.Download XLS